Booze and cigs make you forget to quit drinking and smoking

Given that the New Year is here, now might be a good time to come up with a resolution to reduce your drinking, or stop smoking (or both). That is if you remember, of course.

Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes together could be having a negative impact on your memory. In fact, the impairment associated with using both of these substances is greater than the single use of either substance – a double whammy.

Prior research has established that drinking alcohol in excess (more than 14 units a week, or binge drinking in excess of six units for females and eight for males in a single session) and smoking is associated with a variety of negative health and memory outcomes.

One part of memory that is negatively affected by alcohol and cigarette use is prospective memory. Prospective memory involves planning and remembering future activities, such as remembering to meet with friends at a specific place or time, or remembering to take medication on time.

Excessive alcohol use can damage prospective memory. In one study, when participants were asked to carry out specific tasks, such as handing the researcher a book after a cue from the environment or to call the garage at a specific time, binge drinkers remembered to carry out fewer actions than those who do not binge drink. A similar pattern is evident in smokers. Regular daily smokers remember to carry out fewer memory actions, compared with those who have never smoked.

Not only does drinking excessively and smoking impair memory when used separately, when used together they intensify the effect. Smoking has been found to worsen the memory in those who drink alcohol in excess. Those who both drink and smoke have more memory issues, an impaired ability to think quickly and efficiently and have greater issues with problem solving. Also, those who are dependent on alcohol and also smoke cigarettes suffer more brain damage than those who do not smoke. These people show more cortical thinning in the frontal region of the brain – a region of the brain that is important for memory.

prefrontal cortex
The prefrontal cortex is involved in short- and long-term memoryAlila Medical Media/Shutterstock.com

As people tend to drink alcohol and smoke together, we investigated the combined (polydrug) effect of these two substances on prospective memory. To do this we recruited four groups: excessive drinkers who do not smoke; smokers who do not drink excessively; people who both smoke and drink excessively (polydrug group); and a low-alcohol, non-smoking control group. Participants were tested on their ability to remember six actions. For three of these, the participant was asked to carry out a task at a specific time (for example: “In seven minutes, I would like you to change the pen you are using”). For the other three actions participants were asked to carry out a task in response to a cue (for example, “When you come to a quiz question about ‘Eastenders’ I would like you to give me this book”). Participants were asked to remember these while completing a set of puzzles.

Our analysis of the results showed that the polydrug group (people who both smoke and drink excessively) had a greater impairment than the excessive drinkers and smokers combined. This suggests that there is something that happens when using both of these substances which negatively impacts memory.

Our study is the first to show this effect for prospective remembering. This finding is important because it highlights that prospective memory may be compromised by the combination of excessive drinking and cigarette smoking.

It is our hope that the findings uncovered here will help to improve our understanding about the dangers of excessive drinking and smoking beyond the health concerns usually highlighted in public health warnings.

This research highlights the dangers of combined heavy alcohol use and smoking in relation to everyday memory, in this case prospective memory. If you’re considering what your New Year’s resolution should be this year, why not give up booze or cigarettes in the New Year. You might even want to consider giving up both.


Anna-Marie Marshall is a PhD researcher and demonstrator at Northumbria University. Colin Hamilton is Senior Lecturer in Cognitive Psychology at Northumbria University. Tom Heffernan is Programme Leader in Psychology with Criminology at Northumbria University


This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Related Posts
Robert Mugabe finally allows gays and lesbians to Aids conference
HARARE - Zimbabwe has bowed down to local and international pressure and allowed gays and lesbians to man their stand at the on-going Conference on Aids and STI's in Africa ...
READ MORE
South Africa’s Tutu to undergo surgery as infection persists
CAPE TOWN (Reuters) - South African anti-apartheid hero Desmond Tutu will have surgery on Wednesday to relieve an infection that has confined him to hospital since last month, his family ...
READ MORE
Medical marijuana shows promise in the fight against opioid addiction
Medical marijuana has the potential to help people who suffer from an addiction to opioids, a scientist has argued. Large clinical trials should be a priority to confirm this and ...
READ MORE
As health system collapses, Zimbabwe turns to street medicine
HARARE, Zimbabwe -- Zimbabwe's public health system is collapsing along with the economy, with some major hospitals suspending all non-emergency surgeries because painkillers are scarce. Some in this southern African country ...
READ MORE
4,000 Zimbabweans seek free eye cataract operations in Harare
HARARE—Thousands of poverty-stricken Zimbabweans with eye problems are visiting a free eye camp at Sekuru Kaguvi Eye Hospital at Harare’s Parirenyatwa Hospital. The oversubscribed eye camp is sponsored by the International ...
READ MORE
Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows
LONDON - Scientists have found that smoking a pack a day of cigarettes can cause 150 damaging changes to a smoker's lung cells each year. The findings come from a study of ...
READ MORE
What is one of the most compelling and incredible experience that you’ve had while being a doctor?
What is one of the most compelling and incredible experience that you’ve had while being a doctor? Answer by Dr Brighton Chireka It was on the Christmas Eve of 2015 when I ...
READ MORE
Solomon Guramatunhu rekindles appetite for stocks
A FAMILY Trust linked to the country’s respected eye surgeon Solomon Guramatunhu has amassed a diversified portfolio of investments on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE), which has had its worst ...
READ MORE
‘Increased access to ARVs key’
The Ministry of Health and Child Care has called for increased access to medication and research to improve conditions for people living with HIV and AIDS. Speaking at the UNAIDS conference ...
READ MORE
Male circumcision: Zimbabwe lauded
Zimbabwe has been hailed for the strides made since the voluntary medical male circumcision programme was initiated in 2009 despite the failure to meet the targets. As of September 2015, ...
READ MORE
Robert Mugabe finally allows gays and lesbians to
South Africa’s Tutu to undergo surgery as infection
Medical marijuana shows promise in the fight against
As health system collapses, Zimbabwe turns to street
4,000 Zimbabweans seek free eye cataract operations in
Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations
What is one of the most compelling and
Solomon Guramatunhu rekindles appetite for stocks
‘Increased access to ARVs key’
Male circumcision: Zimbabwe lauded

Arts & Entertainment

Arts & Entertainment

TLC to release first album without late Lisa ‘Left Eye’ Lopes

28th February 2017 Staff Reporter 0

Fans of TLC will rejoice to hear that the r’n’b ’90s much-loved girl group are due to unveil their long-awaited final album this summer. The manager of surviving members Rozonda ‘Chilli’ Thomas and Tionne ‘T-Boz’ […]